Chapter 11 – The Optimum Performance Training Model: Applying Stabilization

SAID Principle

In physical rehabilitation and sports training, the SAID principle asserts that the human body adapts specifically to imposed demands. In other words, given stressors on the human system, whether biomechanical or neurological, there will be a Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands (SAID).

Compare to FITTE Factors 


Frequency refers to the number of training sessions or activity sessions for a given time frame. The time frame usually consists of a week. But, depending on the client and his or her goals, it may be one workout a day, a month, or a year. For general health requirements the recommended frequency of activity is preferably every day of the week, for small quantities of time. For improved fitness levels, the frequency is three to five days a week.


Intensity refers to the level of demand the activity places on the body. This is usually measured by heart rate. For general health requirements moderate intensity is preferred. This would be perceived as enough demand to increase heart and respiratory rates, but not cause exhaustion or breathlessness. Levels range from 65 to 95% of maximal heart rate (HR max).


Time refers to the length of time engaged in the activity. This is usually measured in minutes.  For general health requirements, approximately 30 total minutes a day for 5 days a week is recommended.


Type refers to the mode or activity used.  This can be virtually any activity.  For general health requirements, this may consist of:

  • Using stairs
  • Parking farther from the desired location
  • Mowing the yard
  • Raking leaves

For improved fitness levels, this may consist of:

  • Treadmill, stationary bike, stepper, ARC trainer
  • Aerobics class
  • Sports
  • Weight training


Enjoyment refers to the amount of pleasure derived from the activity by the client.  One of the most important components of a properly designed training program is that it must be enjoyable. This means that the program and its activities must coincide with the personality, likes, and dislikes of the client. This ultimately xenical alli translates into compliance, and that will equal results.



Compare to – Cardiorespiratory Training Zones

They are three different training zones for cardiorespiratory training programs. In these training zones you have three different heart rate zones as well.  Each stage helps to build a strong cardiorespiratory.

Zone One

  • Low Intensity
  • Walking, Light jog, Yoga
  • Max Heart Rate Zone 1 65% to 75%


Compare to – Integrated Flexibility Continuum and Examples of Stretching

As a personal fitness trainer you must understand the different types of flexibility training. In the OPT model there are three different types of flexibility training.

Corrective Flexibility: this type of training is used to increase the joints range of motion, correct joint motion and help improve any muscle imbalances and posture. Hold the stretch for 20-30 seconds.

Static Stretching and Self-myofascial release promote this type of flexibility training.

Compare to – Core training program design

Stabilization exercise include anything with a stability ball or isometric hold. 12-20 reps, 1-4 sets, slow tempo, 0-90sec rest

Compare with – Balance training program design

Progressing someone based on the stages of the OPT Model is important to understand. Know the difference between each phase as far as exercise selection.

Stabilization: Exercises involve no bending of the planted leg or hip (One leg Balance on a foam pad) with 12-20 reps (6-10 SL) at a slow tempo with 0-90sec rest.

Compare with – Plyometric training program design

Stabilzation: Exercises involve a 3-5 second pause upon landing (Box Jump with stabilization) with 5-8 reps, steady tempo and 0-90sec rest.

Compare with SAQ Program Design

Stabilization exercises are composed of drills with mainly sagittal plane movements of 1-2 sets, 2-3 reps and a 0-60 sec rest.

Adaptations for resistance training

Stabilization encourages the adaptation of muscular endurance, improve joint stability, and improve balance.

Compare to Stabilization Endurance Training 

This is Phase One in the OPT Model


Reps:                    12-20

Sets:                     1-3

Tempo:                Slow 4/2/1

Rest:                    0-90seconds

Intensity:             50-70% of 1RM

Frequency:          2-4 times out of the week

Duration:             4-6 weeks

Tempo for Core: 4/2/1