Free Study Guide for the NASM CPT Exam Chapter 8 – Client Acquisition and Consultations

Compare to Subjective vs. Objective information

Gathering information is very important before starting any kind of workout program with a client. You want to know about their current and past state of health. Ask questions and note their answers to determine subjective information and perform assessments to determine objective information.

Subjective Information

  • General Medical History
  • Occupation
  • Lifestyle (Hobbies, Diet, etc.)
  • Personal Information

Objective Information

  • Body Analysis
  • Blood Pressure
  • Performance Assessments
  • Postural Assessments
  • Cardiorespiratory Assessments

Referenced from: Sports Medicine Essentials, 3rd ed. by Glover


Compare with Sample Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire

The physical activity readiness questionnaire also known as the PAR-Q is design to get the clients to answer specific health history questions. It will also give you the information needed for you to determine the possible risk of exercising with the client. If a client answers yes to any of the 7 questions on this form, they must acquire a doctors written permission to begin exercising with you.

Check out a PAR-Q here:


Compare with Sample Questions: client occupation

Occupational questions are asked to determine the amount of influence someone’s job has on their posture.

  • Sitting causes tightness in the hip flexors and rounding of the upper back.
  • High heels cause tightness in the calf musculature.
  • Repetitive movements refers to the shoulder impingement caused by doing physical work over head. (Construction, electrician, volleyball player)
  • Stress may cause shortening of the scalenes and upper trapezius creating upper crossed syndrome.


Compare with Sample Questions: client lifestyle

Lifestyle questions give the trainer a chance to note what interests the client has in their everyday life. Recreational activities and active hobbies can be included in their cardiorespiratory training program.


Compare with Sample Questions: client medical history

Medical history allows the trainer to gauge the risk of any health related issues the client may be dealing with.

Pain should be noted and an exercise program should account for that pain.

Surgeries may limit range of motion or cause joint instability.

Chronic disease may need to be accounted for with all exercises.

Medications may affect exercise variables such as intensity.


Common Medications

Below shows how common medications effect blood pressure and heart rate as well as show you the basic functions of the medications. It is reminded that as a personal trainer this is not our job to educate the client on any usage and effects of these prescribed medications.

Common Medication you will come across with potential clients are:

Antidepressants, Beta-Blockers, Calcium-channel blockers, Digitalis, Thyroid Medication, Nitrates, Diuretics, Bronchodilators, Vasodilators

Learn More Here:


Heart Rate and Blood Pressure Assessments

Heart Rate can be recorded on the thumb-side of the wrist xenical online cheap orlistat (radial pulse; preferred) or on the neck (carotid pulse, use with caution).

Blood pressure is measured using an aneroid sphygmomanometer which consists of an inflatable cuff, a pressure dial, a bulb with a valve and a stethoscope. It is highly recommended that anyone including personal trainers take a professional course in blood pressure assessment before assessing blood pressure with any clients.

See examples of all assessments here:

Target Heart Rate Training Zones & Max Heart Rate Formula

220 – age = Predicted max heart rate. Multiply by the suggested HR training zone of anywhere from 65-95% of Predicted HR max.

Training Zone One = Builds aerobic base and aids in recover

Training Zone Two = Builds aerobic endurance

Training Zone Three = Builds high end work capacity that is mainly anaerobic.



Body Composition Assessments 

There are many methods used to estimate one’s body composition.

  • Skin Fold: Measurements are taken at different site on the right side of the body whole person stands straight but relaxed. The width of the skin fold is measured in millimeters with a specially calibrated caliper. The total for each site in marked and it is added up to determine the person overall body composition.
  • Bioelectrical Impedance: Better known as a Body Fat Analysis is a device that measures the strength and speed of the electrical signal sent through the body. It uses this measurement and information such as height, weight and gender to predict how much body fat a person has.
  • Underwater Testing: Is a technique for measuring the mass per unit volume of a living person’s body.

Refer to for great skinfold site description.

Circumference Measurements 

Circumference measurements measure the outer surface of the body which includes all tissue. They are some benefits in using the circumference measurement, which included tracking the progress of the clients loss (in inches), can be more comfortable to use on overweight clients, easy to afford, easy to record and not hard to learn the technique or make a mistake on it.

Measurements of the following areas are suggested:

  1. Neck
  2. Chest
  3. Waist
  4. Hips
  5. Forearm
  6. Thighs
  7. Calves
  8. Arms



Body mass index (BMI)

BMI can be used to screen patients because the test is simple, correlates to fatness, and applies to both men and women. The BMI may not apply to some individuals with more than normal muscle mass and acceptable levels of body fat.

< 18.5 underweight
18.5 to 24.9 healthy
25 to 29.9 overweight
 30 to 34.9 Obesity
>35 Severe obesity
>40 Medical Intervention is Recommended

Know the above ranges provided by