Chapter 2 – Principles of Adherence and Motivation

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Chapter 2 Motivation and Adherence

Check out our Audio Lectures, Practice Tests and Study Guide for the ACE CPT to see the specific topics that make it onto the ACE CPT Test from this chapter.


    1. Motivation (in regards to exercise)
      1. intrinsic motivation: person truly enjoys exercise and the pleasure/emotions and experience that comes from engaging in it. Increases adherence
      2. extrinsic motivation: participation for any benefit other than enjoyment such as weight loss, trying to be healthy, looking good, meeting new people. Feelings of tension, guilt, or pressure related to their participation
      3. self-efficacy: belief in one’s own capability to engage in a physical-activity program
    2. Maintaining Client Motivation
      1. Social support: a network of family, friends, co-workers, etc who support one’s involvement in exercise and acts as a coping strategy for relapse (returning to an unhealthy/inactive state) prevention
        1. Strategies for building a social support system
          1. find a workout partner
          2. ask friends and family to be encouraging, as well as asking them for reminders about goals or appointments
          3. set up “fun” contests
          4. add a social element
          5. find an enjoyable activity
        2. Fighting negative social influences
          1. Balance time with unsupportive people and supportive
          2. Set limits on how much time is spent with unsupportive people
          3. Mentally prepare
          4. Mentally review
          5. Explain to them why exercise is important for you
        3. Assertiveness
          1. Honest, straightforward expression of thoughts, feelings, and beliefs
        4. Self-regulation
          1. Teach clients to take control over their behavior instead of doing it for them
        5. High-risk situations
          1. Teach clients to be prepared for barriers and relapses and have a plan of action for when high-risk situations occur. Give them coping strategies and more education
    3. Influences on adherence and participation
      1. Personal attributes
        1. demographic variables, health status, activity history, psychological traits, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs
          1. locus of control – belief in personal control over health outcomes
        2. Environmental factors
          1. Access to facilities
          2. Time
          3. Social support
        3. Physical-Activity factors
          1. Intensity
            1. Program too intense causes dropout
          2. Injury
    4. Feedback
      1. Extrinsic feedback: reinforcement, error correction, and encouragement
      2. Intrinsic feedback: information that the clients provide themselves based on their own sensory systems (what they feel, see, or hear)
      3. Knowledge of results: provides information on progress
    5. Leadership Qualities of the Trainer
      1. Professionalism
        1. Neat, clean, and non-threatening appearance. Being punctual and prepared
      2. Trust and credibility
      3. Demonstrates listening abilities
      4. Demonstrates excitement for their job
      5. Continuing to show clients they care
      6. Takes time to think about clients experiences through the clients’ eyes
    6. How the Trainer can Help Build Adherence
      1. Program Design
      2. Role Clarity
      3. Goal Setting
        1. Avoid too many goals and avoid negative goals
        2. Set short- and long-term goals
        3. Revisit goals on a regular basis
      4. Contracts and agreements


Check out our Audio Lectures, Practice Tests and Study Guide for the ACE CPT to see the specific topics that make it onto the ACE CPT Test from this chapter.