Chapter 4 – Basics of Behavior Change and Health Psychology

Chapter 4 Behavior and Psychology

Check out our Audio Lectures, Practice Tests and Study Guide for the ACE CPT to see the specific topics that make it onto the ACE CPT Test from this chapter.

  1. Behavioral Theory Models
    1. Health belief model – The threat of health problems will motivate people to exercise and or engage in healthy behavior.
      1. Perceived seriousness – the more serious the health threat the more likely one is engage
      2. Perceived susceptibility – ones feeling about their chances of experiencing a health threat
      3. Cues to action – physical and/or environmental happenings that motivate people to action
      4. Vocabulary
        1. Sedentary
        2. Hypertension
    2. Self-efficacy – subjective perception of one’s own ability to succeed
      1. Past performance experience
      2. Vicarious experience
      3. Verbal persuasion
        1. Feedback
      4. Physiological state appraisals
      5. Emotional state and mood appraisals
      6. Imaginal experiences
    3. Transtheoretical model (TTM) of behavioral change and components, (deals with ones readiness to make change)
      1. Stages of change
        1. Precontemplation – sedentary and not considering an exercise program
        2. Contemplation – still sedentary but considering exercise as important and are beginning to see the negative effects of being inactive
        3. Preparation – some physical activity, mentally and physically preparing to start an exercise program
        4. Action – engaging in regular exercise but have been doing so for less than 6 months
        5. Maintenance – regular exercise for longer than 6 months
      2. Process of change (very important for trainers)
        1. Table 4-1
      3. Self-efficacy
      4. Decisional balance – refers to the number of pros and cons perceived about adopting and/or maintaining an exercise program
  2. Principles of behavioral change
    1. Operant conditioning – process in which behaviors are influenced by their consequences
      1. Antecedents – stimuli that precede a behavior and often signal the likely consequences of the behavior
      2. Stimulus control – when antecedents are manipulated in the environment to maximize the likelihood of desirable behaviors
        1. Ex: someone who is consistently late sets an alarm extra early to signal when it is time to get ready to be on time.
      3.  Consequences
        1. Presentation, non-occurrence, or removal of a positive or aversive stimulus
        2. positive reinforcement presents a positive stimulus that can increase the likelihood that a behavior will reoccur in the future
        3. negative reinforcement removing or avoiding aversive stimuli following undesirable behavior
          1. Also, increasing the likelihood that behavior will reoccur
        4. Extinction – occurs when a positive stimulus that once followed a behavior is removed and the likelihood that the behavior will reoccur is decreased
        5. Punishment – decreases the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring
          1. Consists of an aversive stimulus following an undesirable behavior
          2. Increases fear, decreases enjoyment, use sparingly
    2. Shaping
      1. Gradually increasing demands of a skill or behavior followed by positive reinforcement as more is accomplished
      2. Critical for building self-efficacy
      3. Too easy=client gets bored, too hard=client feels discouraged, inadequate, and overwhelmed
        1. Both scenarios lead to increased dropout rate
    3. Observational learning
      1. Be aware of exercise behaviors of the people closest to clients as they may impact the likelihood of client success.
    4. Cognition and behavior
      1. Replacing irrational thoughts with more productive, healthier thoughts by asking questions such as those listed on P.79
  3. Behavior-change strategies
    1. Stimulus control
      1. Making adjustments to the environment to increase the likelihood of healthy behaviors
      2. Willpower – ability to ignore temporary pleasure or discomfort to pursue a longer-term goal, a biological function
    2. Written agreements and behavioral contracting
      1. Can be used together or on their own
      2. Client must have an active role in development
    3. Cognitive behavioral techniques
      1. Goal setting – SMART goals
      2. Feedback
        1. Intrinsic or extrinsic
        2. As efficacy and ability improve the trainer should reduce external feedback and allow clients to start providing feedback for themselves
        3. There is such thing as too much feedback
      3. Decision making
        1. Give clients control over their own program participation
        2. Trainer should not make every decision and micromanage clients program
        3. Give clients knowledge to be successful on their own
      4.  Self-monitoring
        1. Helps clients keep track of program participation and progress (or lack of progress)
        2. Helps identify barriers
        3. Requires honesty and self-reflection from clients
        4. Journaling
    4. Implementing new strategies
      1. Info/data collection never ends
      2. Make minor adjustments accounting for psychological variables
      3. Use feedback and communication to overcome new barriers and be aware of changes occurring with clients
      4. Maximize adherence

 

Check out our Audio Lectures, Practice Tests and Study Guide for the ACE CPT to see the specific topics that make it onto the ACE CPT Test from this chapter.