Chapter 5 – Introduction to the ACE Integrated Fitness Training Model

Chapter 5 – Integrated Fitness Training Model

Check out our Audio Lectures, Practice Tests and Study Guide for the ACE CPT to see the specific topics that make it onto the ACE CPT Test from this chapter.

 

  1. Introduction
    1. Activities of daily living (ADL)
      1. Cooking, cleaning, getting dressed, chores around house, work’s physical requirements
    2. Chronic disease
    3. Type 2 diabetes
    4. Coronary artery disease
    5. Hypertension
    6. Obesity
    7. Hyperlipidemia
    8. osteoporosis
  2. FITT-VP general recommendations for cardiovascular exercise
    1. Frequency
      1. 5+ days moderate exercise
      2. 3+ days vigorous
      3. Combination of both
    2.  Intensity
      1. Moderate and/or vigorous for most
      2. Light-to-moderate for deconditioned
    3.  Time
      1. 30-60 minutes/day for moderate
      2. 20-60 minutes/day for vigorous
      3. Less than 20 min/day can be beneficial in previously sedentary
    4. Type
    5. Volume
    6. Pattern
    7.  Progression
      1. Gradual progression done by adjusting duration, frequency, and/or intensity
  3. FITT-VP recommendations for resistance training
    1. Frequency
      1. 2-3 times/week for each major muscle group
    2. Intensity
      1. Novice to intermediate = 60-70% 1RM @ moderate to vigorous intensity
      2. Experience individuals = 80+% 1RM @ vigorous to very vigorous to gain strength
      3. Older individuals/sedentary individuals = 40-50% 1RM @ very light to light intensity for beginners to improve strength
      4. Less than 50% 1RM @ light to moderate intensity to improve muscular endurance
      5. 20-50% 1RM to improve power in older adults
  4. Functional fitness and health
    1. Stability/mobility training
      1. Ready for ADL’s
    2. Balance training
    3. Exercise for improved health
    4. 4-6 weeks of functional training before moving into the fitness domain
  5. Integrated Fitness Training Model (IFT)
    1. Training components
      1. Functional movement (FM) and resistance training (RT)
      2. Cardiorespiratory training
    2. Phase 1
      1. FM and RT – stability and mobility
      2. Cardiorespiratory – aerobic-base training
    3. Phase 2
      1. FM and RT – movement training
      2. Cardiorespiratory training – aerobic-efficiency training
    4. Phase 3
      1. FM and RT – load training
      2. Cardiorespiratory training – anaerobic-endurance training
    5. Phase 4
      1. FM and RT – performance training
      2. Cardiorespiratory – anaerobic-power training
    6. 1st session
      1. Health-risk appraisal – measuring HR, BP, height, weight, etc…
    7. 1st or 2nd session
      1. Medical clearance if necessary
      2. Static posture
      3. Flexibility
      4. Movement screens
    8. Week 1
      1. Static and dynamic balance
      2. Core function
    9. Week 2
      1. Health related assessments – flexibility, body comp., aerobic capacity
    10. Week 3
      1. Muscular strength and muscular endurance
    11. Varies by needs/goals
      1. Skill-related assessments – speed, agility, coordination, reaction time, power
    12. Foundation of IFT Model is Rapport
  6. IFT Model components and phases
    1. Functional movement and resistance training
      1. Phase 1 – Stability and mobility training
        1. Introduce low-intensity exercise
        2. Improve muscle balance, muscular endurance, core function, flexibility, as well as static and dynamic balance to improve posture
        3. Neutral position (unique to each individual)
        4. Improve strength and function of muscles responsible for stabilizing spine and COG during movement
        5. Assessments – posture, balance, movement, range of motion of ankle, hip, shoulder complex, and thoracic and lumbar spine
      2. Phase 2 – Movement training
        1. Bend-and-lift movements (squatting, sitting down and standing up)
        2. Single-leg movements (lunging, stepping forward to pick up off ground)
        3. Pushing movements (forward, overhead, lateral, downward)
        4. Pulling movements (picking up a child)
        5. Rotational movements (spiral, reaching across body to pick up object)
        6. Planes of motion and anatomical positioning
          1. Frontal – cut body into front and back halves
          2. Sagittal – cut body into left and right halves
          3. Transverse – cut body into top and bottom halves (rotational movements)
          4. Superior – being above a given landmark (head is superior to chest)
          5. Inferior – being below a given landmark (knee is inferior to hip)
          6. Anterior (ventral) – front of body (nose is on anterior aspect of body)
          7. Posterior (dorsal) – back of body (glutes are on posterior aspect of body)
          8. Lateral – outside of given landmark (left ear is lateral to left eye)
          9. Medial – inside of given landmark (belly button is medial to hip)
        7. Emphasis on controlled motion and deceleration through eccentric muscle actions
      3. Phase 3 – Load Training
        1. Goals addressed
          1. Change in body composition (looking more “toned”)
          2. Muscular strength
          3. Muscular endurance
          4. Muscle hypertrophy
          5. Motor unit recruitment
        2. Linear or Undulating periodization
        3. Can be in this phase for years (especially if no interest in training for performance)
      4. Phase 4 – Performance Training
        1. Improving speed, agility, quickness, reactivity, and power
          1. Power = force x velocity or work/time
          2. Force = mass x acceleration
          3. Velocity = distance/time
          4. Work = force x distance
        2. Techniques
          1. Plyometric jump training
          2. Medicine ball throws
          3. Kettlebell lifts
          4. Traditional Olympic-style lifts
        3. Goals
          1. Increase rate coding (speed at which motor units stimulate the muscles to contract and produce force)
            1. Maximizing stretch reflex by minimizing transition time between eccentric and concentric muscle actions
          2. Development of type II muscle fibers
            1. High-force, short-duration contractions
            2. Enhancement of muscle size and definition
    2. Cardiorespiratory Training
      1. Phase 1 – Aerobic-base training
        1. steady state training in low-to-moderate ranges below first ventilator threshold (VT1)
          1. talk-test – if one can perform the exercise and talk comfortably in sentences that are more than a few words then they are likely below VT1
          2. RPE of 3-4 on a 0-10 scale
      2. Phase 2 – Aerobic-efficiency training
        1. Goals
          1. Enhance aerobic-efficiency through increased duration, frequency and intensity
          2. Introduce intervals at or just above VT1 or RPE of 5
      3. Phase 3 – anaerobic-endurance training
        1. Goals
          1. Improve performance in endurance events
          2. Train fitness enthusiasts for higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness
          3. Introduce higher-intensity intervals/lactate threshold or tolerance training
            1. Balance of time below VT1, between VT1 and VT2, and at or above VT2
        2. Phase 3 training zones
          1. Zone 1 (below VT1)
            1. 70-80% of training time
            2. Recovery workouts, Warm up, cool down, long-distance workouts
            3. RPE 3-4
            4. Several days per week
          2. Zone 2 (from VT1 to just below VT2)
            1. Less than 10% of training time
            2. Aerobic efficiency
            3. RPE 5
            4. 1-2 sessions per week
          3. Zone 3 (at or above VT2)
            1. 10-20% of training time
            2. Anaerobic endurance
            3. RPE 7-8
            4. 1-2 sessions per week
        3. Signs of Overtraining
          1. Increased resting HR
          2. Disturbed sleep
          3. Decreased hunger on multiple days
          4. Solution: decrease frequency and intensity and focus on recovery with low-moderate RPE 3-4 exercise
      4. Phase 4 – anaerobic-power training
        1. Goals
          1. Develop peak power
          2. Increase aerobic capacity
            1. Using intervals well above VT2 or RPE greater than 9
          3. Overload fast glycolytic system
          4. Challenge phosphagen system
          5. Enhance ability to perform work for extended periods above lactate threshold
        2. Training zones
          1. Zone 1 (below VT1)
            1. 70-80%
            2. Recovery workouts, warm-up, cool-down, long distance
            3. RPE 3-4
            4. Several days per week
          2. Zone 2 (VT1 to just below VT2)
            1. Less than 10%
            2. Aerobic efficiency
            3. RPE 5
            4. 1-2 sessions per week
          3. Zone 3 (at or above VT2)
            1. 10-20%
            2. Anaerobic power
            3. RPE 9-10
            4. 1-2 sessions per week
              1. Intervals at near maximal effort
              2. Short duration with long recovery

 

Check out our Audio Lectures, Practice Tests and Study Guide for the ACE CPT to see the specific topics that make it onto the ACE CPT Test from this chapter.