Free Study Guide for the ACE CPT Exam Chapter 10 – Resistance Training: Programming and Progressions

Chapter 10 – Resistance Training: Programming and Progressions

Check out our Audio Lectures, Practice Tests and Study Guide for the ACE CPT to see the specific topics that make it onto the ACE CPT Test from this chapter.

 

  1. Benefits of RT
    1. Physical capacity – ability to perform work or exercise
      1. After 10 weeks
        1. Increase muscle mass 1.4kg
        2. Reduce fat weight by 1.8kg
    2. Physical appearance and body composition
    3. Metabolic function
      1. Raises RMR = more calories burned daily
    4. Injury risk and disease prevention
      1. Increase bone mineral density (BMD)
      2. Decrease risk of osteoporosis and pain of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid
      3. Lowers BP
      4. Improved lipid profile
      5. Decrease risk of metabolic syndrome
      6. Decrease depression
  2. Physiological adaptations to resistance training: acute and Long-term
    1. Factors that influence
      1. Hormone levels of testosterone and growth hormone increase
      2. Sex
      3. Age
      4. Muscle fiber type – type I (slow twitch), type II (fast-twitch), type IIa and IIx
      5. Muscle length relative to the bone
      6. Limb length
        1. Muscle force x muscle force arm = resistance force arm
      7. Tendon insertion point
    2. Muscular strength and hypertrophy
  3. Muscular strength/power/endurance relationships
    1. Strength
      1. One-repetition max (1-RM)
    2. Endurance
      1. Number of repetitions that can be performed with a given submaximal resistance
    3. Power
      1. Medium weight with moderate-to-fast movement speed produces most power
  4. Training variables
    1. Needs assessment
      1. Health and skill related parameters
    2. Frequency
      1. How many times per week per muscle group
      2. Beginner = 2-3 sessions per week
      3. Intermediate = 3-4 sessions per week
      4. Advanced = 4-7 sessions per week
    3. Exercise selection/order
      1. Multi-joint exercises first (primary exercises)
      2. Single-joint exercises second (assisted exercises)
    4.  Volume
      1. Repetition volume
        1. Volume = sets x repetitions
      2. Load volume
        1. Volume = exercise weightload x repetitions x sets
      3. Volume based on goal
        1. General muscle fitness
          1. Sets 1-2, reps 8-15, rest 30-90s, intensity varies
        2. Muscular endurance
          1. Sets 2-3, reps at least 12, rest less than 30s, 60-70% 1RM
        3. Muscular hypertrophy
          1. Sets 3-6, reps 6-12, rest 30-90s, 70-80% 1RM
        4. Muscular strength
          1. Sets 2-6, reps less than 6, rest 2-5, 80-90% 1RM
        5. Power
          1. Single-effort lifts – sets 3-5, reps 1-2, rest 2-5 min, >90% 1RM
          2. Multiple-effort lifts – sets 3-5, reps 3-5, rest 2-5 min, >90% 1RM
    5. Intensity
      1. DOMS – delayed onset muscle soreness
    6. Tempo
      1. Isokinetic
      2. isotonic
      1. Rest
  5. Training principles
    1. Progression
      1. Double-progressive strength-training protocol
        1. Increase reps
        2. Increase weight in 5% increments
      2. Specificity
        1. Appropriate resistance-repetition protocols
        2. Shot putter vs. rower
      3. Overload
        1. Muscles need to be trained at progressively heavier training loads
        2. Increase loads by 5% to facilitate further strength development
      4. Reversibility
        1. We lose strength at about one-half the rate that is was gained
      5. Diminishing returns
        1. When we plateau, and need to change the training exercise
        2. Introduce new exercise for new neuromuscular response and motor-unit activation pattern for progressive strength gains
  6. RT periodization models
    1. Macrocycle: overall time frame for a specific periodization program
      1. Typically 6-12 months
    2. Mesocycle: divides macrocycle into a few smaller cycles that progressively lead to the ultimate goal
    3. Microcycle: divides mesocycles into even smaller, more manageable cycles.
      1. Typically 2-4 weeks in length
    4. Linear periodization: consistent training protocol within a training protocol
      1. Changes variable after each microcycle
    5. Undulating periodization: provides different training protocols during the microcycles in addition to changing the training variables after each microcycle
    6. FIRST: frequency, intensity, repetitions, sets, type
      1. FIRST for movement training
        1. 2-3 sessions per week
        2. Low intensity
        3. Reps 10-20
        4. At least one set
        5. Dependent on client’s movement efficiency
          1. Stable position – ground-based standing – multiplanar movements – unsupported postures
          2. Closed-chain for lower body
          3. Open-chain for upper body
      2. FIRST for muscular endurance
        1. 3 per week
          1. If one cannot do the same amount of reps on 2nd and 3rd workout then frequency is dropped to 2 times per week
        2. 12-16 controlled reps (6sec/rep) at 60-70% 1RM within 75-100 seconds
        3. 2-3 sets with less than 60 seconds rest
        4. Emphasize the 5 basic movement patterns with exercise selection
      3. FIRST for strength
        1. 72 hours between sessions
        2. 1-6 reps @ 80-90% 1RM for optimal gains
          1. 70-90% for initial stages of strength training
        3. Typically 3-4 sets
        4. Emphasis on 5 basic movement patterns
      4. FIRST for hypertrophy
        1. 72 hours of recovery for a muscle group before next session to train that muscle group
        2. 6-12 reps @70-80% w/ 50-70 seconds rest, 3-6 sets
        3. Combination of free weights and machines for equipment
      5. Advanced approaches
        1. Supersets: alternating exercise for opposing muscle groups with little rest between sets
        2. Compound sets: 2 or more exercises for the same muscles in rapid succession
        3. Breakdown training: train to fatigue, then reduce the weight by 10-20% and perform more reps until failure
        4. Assisted training: train to fatigue, then have help/manual assistance from a trainer on the lifting phase for 3-5 post fatigue reps
      6. Improving power
        1. Plyometrics: quick, powerful movements involving the stretch-shortening cycle
        2. Stretch-shortening cycle: active stretch (eccentric contraction) of a muscle followed by an immediate shortening (concentric contraction) of that same muscle
        3. Amortization phase: period of time between the eccentric and concentric actions
        4. Muscle spindles: sense differences in the rate and magnitude of stretching imposed on a muscle
          1. Invoke involuntary concentric contractions (stretch reflex) when quick stretches are detected
      7. Older adults
        1. Avoid holding breath (BP increase)
        2. Avoid holding isometric contractions (BP increase)
        3. 2 sessions per week (recover slower)
      8.  Nutrition
        1. Caffeine: enhances athletic performance
        2. Anemia: iron deficiency
        3. Vitamin B12: metabolism of nerve tissue, protein, fat, and carbohydrate
        4. Riboflavin: energy production
        5. Vitamin D: calcium absorption, bone growth, and mineralization
          1. Also good for blood clotting, nerve transmission, and muscle stimulation
        6. Steroids
          1. Anabolic side effects
            1. High BP, rage, gynecomastia (enlarged breast size), decreased testicle size, increased testosterone, facial hair growth, deepening voice in women
          2. Androstenedione (precursor to testosterone)
            1. Decreases HDL levels, increases risk of cardiovascular disease, prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer.
            2. Increases baldness and gynecomastia as well



Check out our Audio Lectures, Practice Tests and Study Guide for the ACE CPT to see the specific topics that make it onto the ACE CPT Test from this chapter.