Executing Formal Fitness Assessments

Compare with – Pronation Distortion Syndrome

Pronation distortion syndrome is characterized by flattened feet and adducted knees. Pronation Distortion Syndrome can lead to pain and injury of the low-back and lower extremities, especially ACL injuries.


Short Muscles

  • gastrocnemius
  • soleus
  • peroneals
  • adductors
  • iliotibial band
  • hip flexor complex
  • bicep femoris (short head)

Lengthened Muscles

  • Anterior and Posterior tibialis
  • vastus medialis
  • gluteus maximus/medius
  • hip external rotators

Probable Injuries

  • Plantar fasciitis
  • Posterior tibialis tendinitis (shin splints)
  • low back pain

Reference: http://goldenfitness11.blogspot.com/2013/05/pronation-distortion-syndrome-and-how.html


Compare with – Lower Crossed Syndrome Summary

Lower-Crossed Syndrome (LCS) is also referred to as distal or pelvic crossed syndrome. In LCS, tightness of the thoracolumbar extensors on the dorsal side crosses with tightness of the iliopsoas and rectus femoris. Weakness of the deep abdominal muscles ventrally crosses with weakness of the gluteus maximus and medius. This pattern of imbalance creates joint dysfunction, particularly at the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments, SI joint, and hip joint. Specific postural changes seen in LCS include anterior pelvic tilt, increased lumbar lordosis, lateral lumbar shift, lateral leg rotation, and knee hyperextension. If the lordosis is deep and short, then imbalance is predominantly in the pelvic muscles; if the lordosis is shallow and extends into the thoracic area, then imbalance predominates in the trunk muscles.

Reference: Janda 1987, Human Kinetics

Compare with – Upper Crossed Syndrome

(UCS) is described as a muscle imbalance pattern located at the head and shoulder regions. It is most often found in individuals who work at a desk or who sit for a majority of the day and continuously exhibit poor posture.


rear neck and side neck

levator scapulae



upper trapezius

shoulder internal rotators


teres major

anterior deltoids

pectoralis major

pectoralis minor

  • WEAK

upper-arm external rotators


posterior deltoids

teres minor

deep-neck flexors

longus capitis

longus colli

Reference: http://www.yogajournal.com/slideshow/fix-slouch-poses-upper-crossed-syndrome/


The Overhead xenical weight loss Squat shows up in almost 10 questions on the actual exam. Check out our Audio Lectures and Study Guide for the NASM CPT to see what you should focus on from the Overhead Squat Assessment.


YMCA 3-Minute Step Test

This is a cardiorespiratory assessment to estimate and individual’s cardiorespiratory fitness level. It is done in the time period of 3 min. The first thing you must have is 12-inch step and the client will begin to step up and down at 96 steps per minute. Having a metronome will come in handy to give the client a beat to follow along for the 3 minutes they will be performing this test. As the 3 minutes finish you must immediately find the recovery pulse, write it down and then refer to the text to determine the appropriate heart rate zone to start them at.


Rockport Walk Test

This is another kind of cardiorespiratory assessment set to estimate a cardiovascular starting point. You will need to note your client’s weight, age, gender at first before starting. Once you got all that noted you will need to go to a treadmill in where you will explain to your client that they will need to walk and only walk a mile as fast as they can. No jogging or running, the must walk as fast as they can for a mile. As they do that take note at the time they finish and immediately have them step off to the side so that you may record the heart rate. Now you have everything you need to determine the clients V02 score by using the following formula.

132.853 – (0.0769 x Weight) – (0.3877 x Age) + (6.315 x Gender) – (3.2649 x Time) – (0.1565 x Heart Rate) = Vo2 score (Reference: http://www.brianmac.co.uk/rockport.htm)

Use the following calculator for a quick determination of the clients score: http://www.exrx.net/Calculators/Rockport.html