- Human Movement System:(Kinetic Chain) is composed of three related systems: Nervous(central and peripheral nerves), Muscular (muscles, tendons, ligaments and fascia), and Skeletal (joints) systems.
- Nervous System:
- Sensory Function: The human body’s ability to recognize changes in the environment within the body or outside of the body.
- Integrative Function: the nervous system processes and interprets the sensory input and makes decisions about what should be done in each moment.
- Motor Function: The human body’s ability to respond to the information received from the sensory nervous system.
- Proprioception: the total nervous system input to the central nervous system creating the
- Sensory (afferent) neurons:
- Interneurons: a nerve cell that transmits nerve impulses between neurons.
- Motor (efferent) neurons:
- Central Nervous System:
- Peripheral Nervous System: cranial and spinal nerves
- Muscle Spindles: a proprioceptor
- Golgi Tendon Organs:
- Joint Receptors: sensory receptors in joint capsules that contribute (along with other sensory inputs) to awareness of joint position and movement (proprioceptive sensation).
- Skeletal System: connective tissues, organs.
- Axial Skeleton:
- Appendicular Skeleton:
- Remodeling: mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called bone resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called ossification or new bone formation).
- Osteoclasts: cells that take away or remove mature bone tissue.
- Osteoblasts: cells that are responsible for building up new bone tissue.
- Diaphysis: the long, narrow portion of a bone
- Epiphyseal Plate: t
- Medullary Cavity: t small where blood cell formation occurs and marrow is stored.
- Articular (hyaline) cartilage: that covers the end of a bone that makes up a joint.
- Depressions: a flat area of the bone
- Processes: a point in the bone used for muscular or ligamentous attachment
- Vertebral Column: the column of 24 bones making up the spinal column. (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar)
- Arthrokinematics: Description of the movement of the joint surfaces when a bone moves through a range of motion.
- Synovial Joints: joins bones with a fibrous joint capsule that is continuous with the periosteum of the joined bones.
- Non Synovial Joints: non-movable joint that excludes the joint capsule, cartilage and ligaments.
- Ligaments: connects bone to bone and provides joint support.
- Muscular System:
- Epimysium: the outermost layer of muscular connective tissue that encompasses the muscle body.
- Perimysium: the middle layer of muscular connective tissue that encompasses the muscle fascicle.
- Endomysium: the deepest layer of muscular connective tissue that encompasses the muscle fiber.
- Sarcomere: like the nueron is to the nervous system the sarcomere is the functional unit of muscle or
- Neural Activation: the nervous system activation of a muscle fiber via the neuromuscular junction.
- Motor Unit:
(Compare the above with definitions from the text)
Compare to Figure 2.34
This image from (SEER Training Modules, n.d.) is similar to the one you may find in the book. It shows how the bundles of muscle fibers can be broken down further as you explore more into the skeletal muscle.
Acetlycholine initiating the muscular contraction.
Excitation-contraction coupling is the process of the nervous system stimulating a muscle to contract. This is known as the sliding filament theory. In this figure shown in the book it gives 10 steps in the initiation and end of the contraction. Below the steps are more condensed to assist in understanding. Check out Fitness Mentors Study Guide for the NASM CPT Exam to learn what you need to know specifically about this chart.
- The Neurotransmitter ACh is released and attaches to receptors generating an action potential down the T tubules.
- Action potential triggers Calcium (Ca2+) release
- calcium binds to troponin removing the blocking action of tropomysosin and exposing the actin active binding site.
- Contraction occurs by the myosin cross bridges alternately attach to actin and detach, pulling the filaments closer to the center of the sarcomere. Detachment of actin from myosin requires ATP.
- Removal of Calcium by active transport into the sarcoplasmic reticulum after the action potential ceases.
- Tropomyosin restores its location, covering the actin active site so no more contraction occurs.
Compare to Table 2.5
Type I: Endurance fibers; small; more oxygen and mitochondrial density; less power.
Type II: Less enduring; less oxygen delivery; more power and force, larger than type I.
Compare to Table 2.6
Muscle as Movers
Muscle functions are categorize as an agonist, synergist, stabilizer or antagonist.
- Agonist muscles: prime mover
- Synergist muscles: assist the same movement as the prime mover
- Stabilizer muscles: Stabilize the joints of the body during the movement
- Antagonist muscles: relax to allow the prime mover to work efficiently
|Dumbell Curl||Bicep||Brachioradialis||Rotator cuff||Tricep|
|Calf Raise||Gastrocnemius||Posterior tibialis||Intrinsic Muscles of the ankle, knee and hip||Anterior tibialis|