Chapter 4 – Exercise Metabolism and Bioenergetics
Be Familiar with all definitions throughout the chapter
Exercise Metabolism and Bioenergetics definitions:
- Bioenergetics: the study of energy transformation in living systems.
- Metabolism: the sum of the physical and chemical processes in an organism by which its material substance is produced, maintained, and destroyed, and by which energy is made available.
- Exercise Metabolism: the sum of all body processes under the stress of exercise.
- Substrates: the substance acted upon by an enzyme.
- Carbohydrates: any of a class of organic compounds that are and that form the supporting tissues of plants and are important food for animals and people.
- Glucose: a sugar, C 6 H 12 O 6, having several optically different forms, occurring in many fruits, animal tissues and fluids, etc.
- Glycogen: a white, tasteless polysaccharide constituting the principal carbohydrate storage material in animals and occurring chiefly in the liver and in muscle.
- Fat: any of a group of organic compounds that are greasy to the touch, insoluble in water, and soluble in alcohol and ether: lipids comprise the fats and constitute, with proteins and carbohydrates, the chief structural components of living cells.
- Triglycerides: three fatty acids attached to a glycerol back bone that make up most fat storage in the body.
- Protein: 20 or more amino acids linked in a genetically controlled linear sequence into one or more long polypeptide chains
- Gluconeogenesis: glucose formation in animals from a noncarbohydrate source, as from proteins or fats.
Energy for Work
- Adenosine triphosphate: serving as a source of energy for physiological reactions, especially muscle contraction.
- Adenosine diphosphate: derived from ATP, and serving to transfer energy during glycolysis.
- B-oxidation: a process by which fatty acids are degraded, involving oxidation of the beta carbons and removal of successive two-carbon fragments from the fatty acid.
- Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC): a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity
(compare these definitions with those from the text)