Chapter 4 – Exercise Metabolism and Bioenergetics

Be Familiar with all definitions throughout the chapter

Exercise Metabolism and Bioenergetics definitions:

  • Bioenergetics: the study of energy transformation in living systems.
  • Metabolism: the sum of the physical and chemical processes in an organism by which its material substance is produced, maintained, and destroyed, and by which energy is made available.
  • Exercise Metabolism: the sum of all body processes under the stress of exercise.

Energy Metabolism

  • Substrates: the substance acted upon by an enzyme.
  • Carbohydrates: any of a class of organic compounds that are and that form the supporting tissues of plants and are important food for animals and people.
  • Glucose: a sugar, C 6 H 12 O 6, having several optically different forms, occurring in many fruits, animal tissues and fluids, etc.
  • Glycogen: a white, tasteless polysaccharide constituting the principal carbohydrate storage material in animals and occurring chiefly in the liver and in muscle.
  • Fat: any of a group of organic compounds that are greasy to the touch, insoluble in water, and soluble in alcohol and ether: lipids comprise the fats and constitute, with proteins and carbohydrates, the chief structural components of living cells.
  • Triglycerides: three fatty acids attached to a glycerol back bone that make up most fat storage in the body.
  • Protein: 20 or more amino acids linked in a genetically controlled linear sequence into one or more long polypeptide chains
  • Gluconeogenesis: glucose formation in animals from a noncarbohydrate source, as from proteins or fats.

Energy for Work

  • Adenosine triphosphate: serving as a source of energy for physiological reactions, especially muscle contraction.
  • Adenosine diphosphate: derived from ATP, and serving to transfer energy during glycolysis.
  • B-oxidation: a process by which fatty acids are degraded, involving oxidation of the beta carbons and removal of successive two-carbon fragments from the fatty acid.
  • Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC): a measurably increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity


(compare these definitions with those from the text)